A Rhetorical Examination of Ephesians 1:3

Bibliography

Arnold, Clinton E. Ephesians. ZECNT. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010.

Barth, Markus. Ephesians. 1st ed. The Anchor Bible v. 34-34A. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974.

Best, Ernest. Ephesians. ICC. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998.

Bullinger, E. W. Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, Explained and Illustrated. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1968.

Couch, Beatriz Melano. “Blessed Be He Who Has Blessed: Ephesians 1:3–14.” IRM 77, no. 306 (1988): 213–20.

Hoehner, Harold W. Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002.

Jeal, Roy R. “Rhetorical Argumentation in the Letter to the Ephesians.” Pages 310–24 in Rhetorical Argumentation in Biblical Texts: Essays from the Lund 2000 Conference. Edited by Thomas H. Olbricht, Walter G. Übelacker, and Anders Eriksson. Trinity Press International, 2002.

Larkin, William J. Ephesians: A Handbook on the Greek Text. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2009.

Lincoln, Andrew T. Ephesians. WBC. Waco: Word Books, 1990.

Louw, Johannes P. “A Discourse Reading of Ephesians 1.3-14.” Pages 308–15 in Discourse Analysis and the New Testament: Approaches and Results. Edited by Jeffrey T. Reed and Stanley E. Porter. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999.

Muddiman, John. A Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001.

Newman, Carey C. “Ephesians 1:3-A Primer to Paul’s Grammar of God.” Review & Expositor 95, no. 1 (1998): 89–101.

O’Brien, Peter Thomas. The Letter to the Ephesians. PNTC. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999.

Witmer, John A. “Paul’s Trinitarian Epistle.” BSac 115, no. 459 (1958): 247–57.

Endnotes

[1] This article will assume Pauline authorship.

[2] Gen. 14:20; Ps 18:46 (17:47 LXX), 66:20 (65:20 LXX), 68:35 (67:36 LXX)

[3] Luke 1:42 and 68

[4] More on this below.

[5] See http://rhetoric.byu.edu/figures/A/antanaclasis.htm (accessed on 1/8/11) as well as E. W. Bullinger, Figures of Speech Used in the Bible, Explained and Illustrated (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1968), 303.

[6] Ernest Best, Ephesians, ICC (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998), 113.

[7] Harold W. Hoehner, Ephesians: An Exegetical Commentary (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002), 159.William J. Larkin, Ephesians: A Handbook on the Greek Text (Waco: Baylor University Press, 2009), 4. Beatriz Melano Couch, “Blessed Be He Who Has Blessed: Ephesians 1:3–14,” IRM 77, no. 306 (1988): 213–220.

[8] John A. Witmer, “Paul’s Trinitarian Epistle,” BSac 115, no. 459 (1958): 247–57.

[9] Clinton E. Arnold, Ephesians, ZECNT (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2010), 78.

[10] Though many understand the second and third phrases to be locative “in,” there is a slight difference in that the second phrase speaks of a sphere of location whereas the third phrase speaks of a positional location. This mild distinction helps in the understanding of en tois epouraniois. Specifically, it is because of the believer’s positional location “in Christ” that he or she is blessed in the spiritual sphere, realm, or location “in the heavenlies.”

[11] Hoehner, Ephesians, 166.  Larkin suggested “reference.” Ephesians, 6.

[12] Hoehner, Ephesians, 169.

[13] Andrew T. Lincoln, Ephesians, WBC (Waco: Word Books, 1990), 21.  However, Larkin explained the complicated and multi-faceted possibilities with this last phrase saying, “Location. With more than fifty occurrences in Ephesians, ἐν with Jesus Christ as the object, has one of two main thrusts, locative and instrumental. M. J. Harris further specifies the locative meaning as location, sphere of reference, or incorporative union; and the instrumental thrust as manner, agency or instrumentality, cause, or authoritative basis.” Ephesians, 6.

[14] Roy R. Jeal, “Rhetorical Argumentation in the Letter to the Ephesians,” in Rhetorical Argumentation in Biblical Texts: Essays from the Lund 2000 Conference, ed. Thomas H. Olbricht, Walter G. Übelacker, and Anders Eriksson (Trinity Press International, 2002), 318.

[15] Johannes P. Louw, “A Discourse Reading of Ephesians 1.3-14,” in Discourse Analysis and the New Testament: Approaches and Results, ed. Jeffrey T. Reed and Stanley E. Porter (Sheffield, England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999), 313.

[16] Peter Thomas O’Brien, The Letter to the Ephesians, PNTC (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1999), 91.

[17] Ibid.

[18] Markus Barth, Ephesians, 1st ed., The Anchor Bible v. 34-34A (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1974), 99.

[19] For example, Louw stated, “The contents of v. 3 can therefore be understood as a heading to vv. 4-14 in which this content is elaborated on.” Louw, “A Discourse Reading of Ephesians 1.3-14,” 313. Similarly, Newman said, “What Romans 1:16-17 is to Romans, Ephesians 1:3 is to Ephesians. It provides the best hermeneutical entrance point for exploring the vast, seemingly uncharted theological territory we call Ephesians.” Carey C. Newman, “Ephesians 1:3-A Primer to Paul’s Grammar of God,” Review & Expositor 95, no. 1 (1998): 89.

[20] For an excellent diagram of the many different views of the form and structure of 1:3–14, cf. Hoehner, Ephesians, 160–161.  It may be difficult for one to appreciate the level of disagreement amongst scholars only until one begins to research the many views postulated by these scholars.

[21] Lincoln, Ephesians, 10–11; Best, Ephesians, 63–65; John Muddiman, A Commentary on the Epistle to the Ephesians (Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001), 104–107; Hoehner, Ephesians, 153–159; Arnold, Ephesians, 72.

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